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Psychology Assignment: 1. Define the terms, "Behavior" and "mental processes". Provide at least two examples of each and explain why they are the anchors of what psychology is all about. 2. Give a short overview of both the Structural and Functionalist approaches. Who started each, what were the foundations of each, and the main differences between the two? Finally, why were they so important to the field of psychology? 3. What are the main differences between the biological, behavioral, psychodynamic, and humanistic approaches to psychology? 4. What is the scientific method for psychology? Why is it important for the fields of psychology and sociology to adhere to a scientific method or approach? 5. Compare and contrast correlational and experimental research. Why is one more important than the other when it comes to causation? Where do we see issues with correlational associations now?

Question 1 Psychology defines behavior as the reactions shown by an organism to the external environment. Behaviors include activities such as; walking, talking, crying, and eating, among others. Behaviorism, also refer as behavioral psychology suggests that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning (Comer & Gould, 2011). An organism encounters conditioning by interacting with the environment. Behavioral psychology focuses on studying the alteration of individuals’ behaviors under different environments. Techniques applied in the study include; behavioral modeling, classical and operant conditioning, and cognitive restructuring. There are eight types of behaviors; rational and irrational behavior, conscious and unconscious behavior, voluntary and involuntary behavior, and lastly overt and covert behavior. On the other hand, mental processes refer to an individual's thoughts and feelings that cannot be observed directly. How an individual understands something or visually perceives another are examples of mental processes. Other examples of mental functions include; memory, thinking, emotion, and volition. Sometimes, the term mental processes and cognitive functions are used interchangeably. Question 2 Structuralism, also known as structural psychology is a consciousness theory that was developed by Wilhelm Wundt and his student Edward Titchner. The theory attempts to analyze a human's mind through feelings, emotions, and introspection. Structuralism helped develop the first psychology school. However, structuralism barely lasted long after Titchener died. Functionalism was greatly influenced by the works of William James and Charles Darwin. While structuralism focused on consciousness and studying the human mind through introspection, functionalism focused on consciousness and behavior; in that it studies the functions and the role of the human....

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